To diagnose Kaposi sarcoma, a healthcare provider may do a physical exam and remove a sample of a lesion to inspect under a microscope. You may also need a chest X-ray to see if the disease has affected your lungs. A healthcare provider may also need to inspect your lungs directly using a small scope to take pictures and tissue samples. Kaposi sarcoma can also affect the digestive system, so an endoscopy and/or colonoscopy may also be necessary to examine the upper and lower digestive tract.
Likewise, a number of tests may be needed to diagnose AIDS-related lymphoma, including blood tests and biopsies. Other tests might include CT or MRI scans. These create images of the inside of your body. The healthcare provider may also perform a physical exam to see how well your brain and nervous system are working. The healthcare provider may do a lumbar puncture to check the fluid in your spinal cord for cancer, as well.
A healthcare provider may find early cervical cancer, or cells that could become cancerous, during a Pap test. A healthcare provider may do a physical exam and a digital rectal exam to check for anal cancer. Other ways to diagnose this disease include inspecting the area with a special scope or removing cells to examine under the microscope.
To diagnose lung cancer, a healthcare provider may obtain images of your lungs with an X-ray, CT, or MRI scan. Blood tests may also be helpful. The healthcare provider may analyze mucus, fluid, or tissue from your lung. Other tests might be needed to look for cancer spread.