The birth of a baby is one of life's most wondrous moments. Few experiences can compare with this event. Newborn babies have amazing abilities. However, they depend on others for all of their needs -- food, warmth, and comfort.
Great physical changes occur with birth. When the baby is delivered, the umbilical cord is cut and clamped near the navel. This ends the baby's dependence on the placenta for oxygen and nutrition. As the baby takes the first breath, air moves into the lungs. Before birth, the lungs do not take in oxygen or release carbon dioxide. As the baby takes in air, his or her heart and blood vessels also change.
Some babies have excess fluid in their lungs. Stimulating the baby to breathe by drying and gently rubbing the skin can help the lungs reabsorb the fluid. Any mucus is suctioned from the baby's nose, mouth, and throat.
A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and blood and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often, a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head. Placing a baby skin-to-skin on the mother's chest or abdomen also helps keep the baby warm.
The newborn is checked right away. A brief physical exam is done. One of the first checks is called Apgar scoring. Apgar scoring is a quick way to evaluate the condition of the newborn at 1 and' 5 minutes after birth. The baby's muscle tone, heart rate, reflexes, color, and breathing are checked. Each of the 5 parts is given a score of 0,1, or 2. A baby's Apgar score can be between 0 and 10. The total score means the following:
7 to 10 - the baby does not need much extra support
4 to 6 - The baby needs some extra support and careful monitoring
3 or below - The baby needs immediate life-saving support
A brief physical exam is done to check for obvious signs that the baby is healthy. Other necessary procedures will be done over the next few minutes and hours. These may be done in the delivery room or in the nursery, depending on several factors, including the condition of the baby. Some of these procedures include the following:
Temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate
Measurements of weight, length, and head circumference. These measurements help determine if the baby's weight and measurements are normal for the number of weeks of pregnancy. Small or underweight babies as well as very large babies may need special attention and care.
Cord care. The baby's umbilical cord stump will have a clamp to prevent bleeding. It needs to be kept clean and dry.
Bath. Once a baby's temperature has stabilized, the first bath can be given.
Vitamin K. Vitamin K is given as an injection to prevent severe bleeding in the newborn.
Eye care. Antibiotic ointment is placed in the eyes to prevent infections that might cause blindness.
Before a baby leaves the delivery area, identification bracelets with identical numbers are placed on the baby and mother as well as father or another support person. Babies often have two, one on the wrist and one on the ankle. These should be checked each time the baby comes or goes from your room.
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