Herpes simplex 1 infection, herpes simplex 2 infection
This test looks for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in your cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It diagnoses herpes simplex infection in the nervous system. The test is especially useful to find out if HSV is causing an infection of the brain (encephalitis) or an infection of the fluid around the spinal cord and brain (meningitis).
There are 2 types of HSV: HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 generally causes oral herpes. Oral herpes causes blisters called cold sores. HSV-2 causes genital herpes. This causes sores on the genitals. Both types of herpes can also cause sores on any part of your body. Other symptoms might include headaches, fever, and general discomfort such as body aches.
HSV is the most common type of genital ulcer illness. First-time infections are usually more severe than later outbreaks.
You can get HSV from having unprotected sex with an infected partner. If your immunity is weakened, you may be more likely to get HSV. Menstruation, extreme tiredness (fatigue), and illness can trigger an HSV outbreak.
In rare cases, HSV causes more severe infections. These include encephalitis and meningitis.
HSV can be passed from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby. At least 50% of newborns with a herpes infection passed on in this way will die. Those who live often have illnesses that affect the brain and can also damage the eyes and nerves.
You may have a miscarriage if your unborn baby gets herpes early in your pregnancy. You should not give birth to a baby through your vagina if you have an active herpes infection. A C-section is advised in this case.
You may be given this test if your healthcare provider thinks that you have meningitis or encephalitis caused by HSV.
Symptoms of HSV infection of the nervous system include:
General discomfort, such as body aches
For women, small sores on the cervix, vagina, and inner thighs
For men, sores on the glans and shaft of the penis and anal area
Your healthcare provider will also ask about your health history and give you a physical exam. You may also need blood tests or X-rays.
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
This test is done with a sample of your cerebrospinal fluid. Your healthcare provider will take the sample through a lumbar puncture (LP) using a thin needle. The needle will be pushed into your lower back, and fluid will be removed.
A lumbar puncture has these risks:
Your normal activities won't affect your test results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. But be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.
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