Natural male reproduction depends on several things.
You must be able to:
Problems with either of these may mean you have infertility. Below are some of the main causes of male infertility.
Problems with making healthy sperm are the most common causes of male infertility. Sperm may be immature, abnormally shaped, or unable to swim. In some cases, you may not have enough sperm. Or you may not make any sperm. This problem may be caused by many different conditions, including:
Anything that blocks the genital tract can stop the flow of semen. This could be a genetic or birth defect. Infection or inflammation from a sexually transmitted disease can also block semen. Other causes include scar tissue from surgery or twisted, swollen veins in the scrotum.
Other factors may include erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. Liver or kidney disease, or treatment for seizure disorders are examples of problems that can cause infertility.
You may be more likely to have male infertility if you have had:
You may also be at risk if you take certain prescription medicines. These include medicines for ulcers, psoriasis, depression, and high blood pressure.
You may have male infertility if your female partner has not become pregnant after you have tried for 1 year. This means 1 year of regular sex without any birth control.
Your healthcare provider will test both you and your partner to find the cause of infertility.
Your healthcare provider will review your health history and do a physical exam. Other tests for male infertility may include:
Treatment depends on what is causing your infertility.
This treatment involves helping your partner get pregnant. This may be through:
Hormone treatment may help you if you have a hormone disorder causing your infertility. Hormone imbalances can affect how sperm develop. They may be caused by a problem in how the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testes interact. Treatment may include gonadotropin therapy or antibiotics.
Your provider may use surgery to fix problems that keep sperm from being made, matured, or ejaculated. Surgery to remove twisted, swollen veins in the scrotum (varicocele) can sometimes improve the quality of sperm.
Check with your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns you have about your condition.
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