As a person grows older and is exposed to sunlight, the skin changes in response to this exposure. Most people have some skin marks, such as freckles and moles, which may multiply or darken over time. Benign means they are not cancer.
Small, firm, red or brown bumps caused by an accumulation of fibroblasts (soft tissue cells under the skin). They often occur on the legs and may itch. They are more common in women.
Dermatofibromas can be surgically removed if they become painful or itchy.
A benign tumor which is made up of hairs, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. Some internal dermoid tumors may even contain cartilage, bone fragments, and teeth.
Dermoid cysts may be removed surgically for cosmetic reasons.
Darkened, flat spots that typically appear only on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Freckles are common in people with blond or red hair.
No treatment is needed for freckles.
Smooth, firm, raised, fibrous growths on the skin that form in wound sites. Keloids are more common in people with dark skin.
Keloids respond poorly to most treatment approaches. Injections of corticosteroid drugs may help to flatten the keloids. Other treatment approaches may include surgery, laser, or silicone patches to further flatten the keloids.
Round, flesh-colored growths that have a crater that contains a pasty material. These growths tend to appear on the face, forearm, or back of the hand. They usually disappear after a couple of months, but may leave scars. Many feel they are a form of squamous cell carcinoma.
Treatment usually includes a skin biopsy to rule out skin cancer. Other treatment may include surgical removal or injections of corticosteroids or fluorouracil.
Round or oval, easily movable lumps under the skin caused by fatty deposits. Lipomas are more common in women and tend to appear on the forearms, torso, and back of the neck.
Lipomas are generally harmless. But if the lipoma changes shape or you have symptoms, your healthcare provider may do a biopsy. Treatment may include surgical removal.
Small skin marks caused by pigment-producing cells in the skin. Moles can be flat or raised, smooth or rough, and some contain hair. Most moles are dark brown or black, but some are skin-colored or yellowish. Moles can change over time and often respond to hormonal changes.
Most moles are benign and no treatment is necessary. Some benign moles may develop into skin cancer (melanoma). See below for signs.
Atypical moles (dysplastic nevi)
Larger than normal moles (more than a half inch across), atypical moles are not always round. Atypical moles can be tan to dark brown, on a pink background. These types of moles may occur anywhere on the body.
Treatment may include removal of any atypical mole that changes in color, shape or diameter. In addition, people with atypical moles should avoid sun exposure, since sunlight may accelerate changes in atypical moles. People with atypical moles should see a doctor for any changes that may indicate skin cancer.
Red, brown, or bluish-black, raised marks caused by excessive growth of capillaries (small blood vessels) and swelling. Pyogenic granulomas usually form after an injury to the skin and bleed easily.
Some pyogenic granulomas disappear without treatment. Sometimes, a biopsy is needed to rule out cancer. Treatment may include surgical removal and electrodessication of the base.
Flesh-colored, brown, or black wart-like spots. More common in middle-aged and older people, seborrheic keratoses may be round or oval and look like they are stuck on the skin.
Usually, no treatment is needed. If the spots are irritated, or the person wants them removed for cosmetic reasons, treatment may include freezing the area with liquid nitrogen or surgery.
Soft, small, flesh-colored skin flaps on the neck, armpits, or groin. They are very common. They may be linked to metabolic syndrome and increased risk of heart disease.
If the skin tags are irritated, or the person wants them removed for cosmetic reasons, treatment may include freezing the tags with liquid nitrogen, electrodesiccation, or surgery by cutting them off.
Certain moles are at higher risk for changing into cancerous growths such as malignant melanoma, a form of skin cancer. Moles that are present at birth and atypical moles have a greater chance of becoming cancerous. Finding cancerous skin growths early is important because that’s when treatment is most likely to be effective. Use this ABCDE chart below to help you see changes in your moles at the earliest stages. The warning signs include:
When half of the mole does not match the other half
When the border (edges) of the mole are ragged or irregular
When the color of the mole varies throughout
If the mole's diameter is larger than a pencil's eraser
Changes in the way the mole looks over time
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